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  • Yoga Hamstring Stretches
    For Improving Hamstring Flexibility

    hamstring stretches, seated hamstring stretch, trinagle forward fold, standing forward bend, prasaritta padotanasana series, seated wide leg forward fold, supta konasana, janusirsasana a and b, seated forward fold, paschimotanasana, compass pose

    The hamstrings are the muscles that run up the back of the thigh. They cross both the knee and the hips and so are affected by both joints.

    To stretch the hamstrings the knee has to be straight and the pelvis tilted forwards.

    It may help to think of straightening the knee as opening the back of the knee joint. Meanwhile tilting the pelvis forwards opens the back of the hip joint.

    If the knee joint is bent then tilting the pelvis forwards only stretches the hip extensors and not the hamstrings.

    If the knee is straight then tilting the pelvis forwards can stretch the deeper "single joint" hip extensors as well as the hamstrings.

    muscle anatomy, hamstrings

    If you have tight hamstrings then it can be helpful to focus on keeping the back straight when doing forward bending yoga poses so that the focus is on opening the back of the hips and stretching the hamstrings. (Read more about doing a hunchback free seated forward bend.)

    And you may find it helpful to do a hip extensor stretch like low lunge prior to stretching the hamstrings.

    low lunge yoga hip stretch

    While it is a bit difficult if you are close to the floor, you could try activating the front of the hip in this yoga pose by trying to pull upwards on your front knee even as you let your chest sink downwards.

    Types of Yoga Hamstring Stretches

    Yoga Hamstring stretches can be divided into two main groups, standing and seated. You can also stretch the hamstrings while reclining in plow pose.

    If you have tight hamstrings and have difficulty stretching them you might find it easier to start with the standing gravity assisted stretches and then move to seated stretches

    A slightly more advanced option is muscle assisted forward bends where you use either the arms or the hip flexors to assist the forward bend.

    To make it easier to feel your hamstrings and control them you can also try hamstring strengthening exercises.

    Making the Hamstrings Feel Safe

    In standing yoga hamstring stretches the hamstrings may tighten up to help control the forward tilt of the body.

    standing hamstring stretches, triangle forward bending yoga pose. In this pose the feet are separated from front to back about a leg's length. Both feet are flat on the floor with the front foot pointing straight ahead and back foot turned out slightly. Both knees are straight and the pelvis is facing the same direction as the front foot. The torso is horizontal (leaning forwards) with spine straight, eyes looking straight down and arms reaching back. The head is reaching away from the pelvis. Model Neil Keleher, Sensational Yoga PosesHamstring stretch, triangle forward fold with arms supporting the body. In this picture the feet are separated front to back about a leg's length. Both feet are flat on the floor with front foot facing forwards and back foot turned out slightly. Both knees are straight. The torso is tilted forwards so that it is horizontal and both hands rest on the front leg helping to support the weight of the upper body. The spine is straight and eyes are looking slightly forwards. Model, Neil Keleher, Sensational Yoga Poses

    In the pose picture above, called Triangle Forward Fold or Parsvottanasana, if my arms are lifted as in the first picture my hamstrings have to activate to keep my torso horizontal.

    And if I want to tilt my pelvis forwards so that my torso moves closer to my front leg then the hamstrings have to lengthen while staying active.

    (This is known as eccentric contraction. But you can think of it as the hamstrings "lengthening while activated".)

    With lack of experience, your hamstrings may lock and prevent you from deepening the forward bend.
    They won't be able to lengthen while active. You could think of this as a fear response.

    And so one goal of hamstring stretching is negate the fear response.

    Overcoming the Hamstring Stretch Fear Response

    One way to overcome the fear response is to use the arms to help support the body.

    In the second picture above I'm resting my hands on my legs. If I press my hands down against my leg then my arms support my upper body meaning that my hamstrings can ideally relax.

    If I can keep my hamstrings relaxed I can gradually tilt my pelvis forwards. So that my ribcage can lower I can either bend my elbows as I tilt my pelvis forwards or slide my hands down my leg towards the floor.

    Hamstring stretch, triangle forward fold with arms supporting the body. In this picture the feet are separated front to back about a leg's length. Both feet are flat on the floor with front foot facing forwards and back foot turned out slightly. Both knees are straight. The torso is tilted forwards to about 45 degrees above the horizontal. Both hands rest on the front thigh helping to support the weight of the upper body. The spine is straight and eyes are looking slightly forwards. Model, Neil Keleher, Sensational Yoga PosesHamstring stretch, triangle forward fold with arms supporting the body. In this picture the feet are separated front to back about a leg's length. Both feet are flat on the floor with front foot facing forwards and back foot turned out slightly. Both knees are straight. The torso is tilted forwards so that it is horizontal and both hands rest on the front leg helping to support the weight of the upper body. The spine is straight and eyes are looking slightly forwards. Model, Neil Keleher, Sensational Yoga PosesHamstring stretch, triangle forward fold with arms supporting the body. In this picture the feet are separated front to back about a leg's length. Both feet are flat on the floor with front foot facing forwards and back foot turned out slightly. Both knees are straight. The torso is tilted forwards so that it is horizontal and both hands rest on the floor on either side of the front foot helping to support the weight of the upper body. The spine is straight and eyes are looking slightly forwards. Model, Neil Keleher, Sensational Yoga Poses

    Another option for overcoming the fear response is to practice activating and relaxing the hamstrings.

    Learning To Contract and Relax the Hamstrings

    Using the same pose, we can start with the hands on the leg. Then, slowly lift the arms and reach them back.

    The hamstrings will have to activate to support the body.

    Then put the arms back down on the leg. With the arms supporting the body the hamstrings can relax again.

    Repeat this a few times and then switch sides.

    One you have the basic feel for this exercise a variation uses the following repeated steps:

    • First make both legs feel strong.
    • Open the chest.
    • Slowly relax the arms so that you can then lift them.
    • Reach the arms back.
    • Put the arms back down and relax the legs.
    • Repeat.
    Hamstring stretch, triangle forward fold with arms supporting the body. In this picture the feet are separated front to back about a leg's length. Both feet are flat on the floor with front foot facing forwards and back foot turned out slightly. Both knees are straight. The torso is tilted forwards so that it is horizontal and both hands rest on the front leg helping to support the weight of the upper body. The spine is straight and eyes are looking slightly forwards. Model, Neil Keleher, Sensational Yoga Posesstanding hamstring stretches, triangle forward bending yoga pose. In this pose the feet are separated from front to back about a leg's length. Both feet are flat on the floor with the front foot pointing straight ahead and back foot turned out slightly. Both knees are straight and the pelvis is facing the same direction as the front foot. The torso is horizontal (leaning forwards) with spine straight, eyes looking straight down and arms reaching back. The head is reaching away from the pelvis. Model Neil Keleher, Sensational Yoga PosesHamstring stretch, triangle forward fold with arms supporting the body. In this picture the feet are separated front to back about a leg's length. Both feet are flat on the floor with front foot facing forwards and back foot turned out slightly. Both knees are straight. The torso is tilted forwards so that it is horizontal and both hands rest on the floor on either side of the front foot helping to support the weight of the upper body. The spine is straight and eyes are looking slightly forwards. Model, Neil Keleher, Sensational Yoga Poses

    If you practice a few times you'll learn to feel what you need to do to make your legs strong in just the right way to support the weight of your body.

    With the legs strong, your spine then has a stable base (the pelvis) from which to lengthen. Your then have a firm foundation for lifting the arms.

    Each time you lift the arms you practice engaging the hamstrings. You then give yourself, and your hamstrings, the confidence and experience so that you can begin deepening your hamstring stretch.

    How Do You Stretch the Hamstrings?

    When do you stretch the hamstrings in this exercise?
    When you put your arms back down on your leg or the floor.

    With your hands on your leg (or on the floor) you can gradually bend your elbows as your hamstrings relax.

    As your elbows bend your ribcage can move closer to your leg.

    However, rather than bending the spine so that this happens, tilt your pelvis forwards so that your ribcage and pelvis tilt forwards as one unit.

    You'll then be stretching your hamstrings.

    Using the Butt Muscles Instead of the Arms

    Another way to support the body while doing a standing forward bend is to use the butt muscles.

    hamstring stretches, standing forward bend. In this standing forward bend feet are hip width and parallel, knees are straight and my upper body is leaning forwards at about 45 degrees above the horizontal. Spine is straight and reasonably long with hands touching the fronts of the thighs. Model Neil Keleher. Sensational Yoga Poses.Hamstring stretches, standing forward bend, Neil Keleher, sensational Yoga Poses. In this standing forward bend feet are hip width and parallel. Knees are straight and torso is leaning forwards so that it is horizontal. Thoracic spine is very slightly rounded. Neck is long and arms are hanging down towards the ground but not touching the ground.hamstring stretches, standing forward bend. In this standing forward bend feet are hip width and parallel, knees are straight and upper body is tilted forwards far enough that finger tips can just touch the floor. Spine is straight and long and eyes are looking straight down so that the head has a slight backwards tilt relative to the ribcage. Model Neil Keleher, Sensational Yoga Poses.

    Standing with feet parallel and hip width (or shoulder width) apart, you can slowly bend forwards while keeping your butt engaged. If you like rest your hands on your legs, or on the floor if you can reach it.

    You could also focus on squeezing your butt cheeks and then relaxing them.

    Each time you relax your butt cheeks see if you can also relax your hamstrings so that you can stretch them.

    Stiff Lower Back?

    If you find that your lower back is really stiff when doing standing yoga hamstrings stretches, you might find that activating your gluteus maximus muscle is really helpful.

    Deliberately Lengthening the Hamstrings

    Another way to work around the fear response while doing hamstring stretches is to focus on what you are trying to do. In the case of the standing wide leg hamstring stretch (prasaritta padottanasana) you can focus on lengthening your hamstrings by reaching your sitting bones upwards, away from the backs of your knees.

    The sitting bones are the bones that you can feel when you sit on a hard chair.

    If you aren't sure about your sitting bones you could also focus on feeling the bottom of your butt cheeks. Reach the bottom of your butt cheeks upwards while bent forwards.

    Hamstring stretches, wide leg forward bend. In this wide leg forward bend feet are a legs distance apart from side to side with feet parallel, flat on the floor and knees straight. Torso is tilted forwards so that it's horizontal far enough that I can get both hands on the floor and keep elbows straight. In this case the arms are supporting the weight of the upper body.

    You can also turn this into a muscle assisted yoga hamstring stretch.

    hamstring stretches, prasaritta padotanasana a. In this wide leg forward fold, feet are a legs length apart with both feet flat on the floor, parallel, with knees straight. Torso is tilted forwards with both hands on the floor, elbows bent and forearms vertical. Hands and elbows and shoulder width apart. In this picture head is tilted so that eyes can easily look down. Model Neil Keleher, Sensational Yoga Poses.hamstring stretches. Prasaritta Padottanasana D. In this standing wide leg forward fold feet are a leg's length apart. Feel are parallel, flat on the floor with knees straight. Torso is tilted forwards far enough that first two fingers of each hand can grab the big toe of each foot. Elbows are bent and pointing out to the sides. Head is tilted relative to torso so that eyese are gazing at the floor. Model, Neil Keleher, Sensational Yoga Poses.

    If you can get your hands onto the floor then use your arms to pull your ribcage towards your legs (Prasaritta Padottanasana A).

    You can also grab onto your big toes (Prasaritta Padottanasana D). In this case pull your arms forwards, so that your ribcage moves back, towards your legs.

    In both of these versions keep your spine feeling long. Make your legs feel long also.

    If you have your hands on your waist (Prasaritta Padottanasana B) or you have your hands clasped behind your back (Prasaritta Padottanasana C Shoulder Stretch) then you can use your hip flexors, as well as gravity, to drive the stretch.

    hamstring stretch. Prasaritta padotannasana B. In this wide leg forward fold feet are separated a leg's length. Feet are parallel and flat on the floor. Knees are straight and torso is tilted forwards with eyes looking down. Both hands are on the waist with elbows pointing back and shoulder blades squeezing together (retracted). Model Neil Keleher, Sensational Yoga Poses.hamstring stretches, prasaritta padotanasana C. In this wide leg forward fold legs are wide with feet parallel. Knees are straight and torso is tilted forwards with hands clasped behind the back. Elbows are straight and arms reach back and up so that they are at about 90 degrees to the body.

    To help activate your hip flexors you can imagine drawing your legs forwards, towards your chest.

    For practice in using the hip flexors check out this sequence of Hip Flexor Activation Exercises.
    (It's included as part of the intro to the Hip Control Guide.)

    Seated Hamstring Stretching Techniques

    In seated yoga hamstring stretches I often find that pressing down through the backs of the knees helps improve hamstring flexibility.

    You may find that this action (pressing the knees or heels forwards) adds tension to the thighs and that tension is desirable since it gives more control over the hip joints, which is what is desired in a forward bend. With control of the hip joints you can use that control to help increase your forward bend.

    Some instructors may shy away from this instruction because of the tendency for those with hypermobile (or hyper extensible) knee joints to hyper extend the knee. However in a seated stretch for the hamstrings this is less of a concern.

    And more importantly, for those who have difficulty stretching the hamstrings in the first place, this may be one action that helps.

    If you're hamstrings are so tight that you can't sit upright with the legs straight then this action may not work. (You could try sitting on an inclined sit up bench so that your butt is higher than your feet so that you can then lean your upper body forwards.)

    Stretching the Hamstrings by Moving the Upper Body towards the Leg Or the Leg Towards the Upper Body

    In the following seated hamstring stretches you can stretch the hamstrings either by tilting the pelvis forwards relative to the pelvis (such as in "Wide Leg Seated Forward Fold", "Janu Sirsasana A", or "Paschimottanasana").

    wide leg forward bend, knees straight, bent forwards and relaxedjanu sirsasana a, yoga pose, seated hamstring stretch, bent forwards over straight leg, relaxed with hands on floorrelaxed seated forward bend yoga position, yoga pose, seated hamstring stretch relaxed

    You could also pull the legs (one leg at a time) towards the front of the body as shown below (Compass Pose preparation).

    easy compass pose, knee bent, hamstring stretch, knee straight, spine long, yoga pose, head pulled back and up, chin down towards chest.

    In both types of hamstring stretches, the knees are straight (or as straight as possible.)

    These stretches can be made more pleasant if you focus on feeling your breath.

    Wide Leg Seated Hamstring Stretch

    Generally, the seated wide leg seated forward bend is the easiest of seated yoga hamstrings stretches.

    wide leg forward bend, knees straight, bent forwards and relaxedwide leg forward bend, knees straight, reaching forwards with hands off of floor, yoga pose

    Janu Sirsasana A

    Janu Sirsasana A is also a seated yoga hamstring stretch. However only one leg is straight in this yoga pose.

    As with the wide legged seated forward fold, you can first practice lengthening your spine while seated upright.

    In the pictures below I'm turned forty-five degrees in from my straight leg while I practice straightening and relaxing my spine.

    janu sirsasana a, yoga pose, seated hamstring stretch, sitting upright relaxedjanu sirsasana a, yoga pose, seated hamstring stretch, sitting upright spine ling

    Bending forwards you can first bend forwards while facing between both legs.

    If you start of with this variation, shown below, you can increase the difficulty of the pose by gradually turning your body so that your torso is reaching over your straight leg.

    janu sirsasana a, yoga pose, seated hamstring stretch, bent forwards between legs, relaxedjanu sirsasana a, yoga pose, seated hamstring stretch, bent forwards between legs, spine long, arms reaching forwards

    In the photos below I'm turned towards my straight leg.

    janu sirsasana a, yoga pose, seated hamstring stretch, bent forwards over straight leg, relaxed with hands on floorjanu sirsasana a, yoga pose, seated hamstring stretch, bent forwards over straight leg, spine long, arms long and reaching forwards, hands off of floor.

    If your bent knee doesn't touch the floor you can either place a block beneath it so that you can then press that leg down against the block or focus on pressing the outer edge of the foot into the floor as you lengthen your spine. (The foot of the bent knee leg that is.)

    Janu Sirsasana B Seated Hamstring Stretch

    In Janu Sirsasana B position your pelvis so that your anus is on top of your heel. Then bend forwards. You can point the bent knee foot to the side or forwards. Try both variations and notice how they feel.

    Janu Sirsasana C

    Here are some suggestions for getting comfortable in the Janu Sirsasana C foot position as well as some modifications.

    Seated Forward Fold

    After doing the above seated yoga hamstring stretches on both sides you can then do a seated hamstring stretch with both legs together.
    This is easier with the feet about hip-width apart (my favored position.) It can become a lot more uncomfortable with feet together.

    seated forward bend hamstring stretch, yoga pose prep position, knees bentseated forward bend hamstring stretch, yoga pose prep position, knees bent

    As with the wide leg seated front fold, you can also do this seated forward bending yoga pose with knees bent.

    As you tilt further and further forwards in this yoga pose, try to widen the top of your inner thighs (close to the groin) while keeping your feet in the same position. With inner thighs widened, press your inner thighs downwards so that you can use your psoas and iliacus to help tilt your pelvis forwards. Or focus on using your outer glutes (gluteus minimus and medius) to help tilt your pelvis forwards relative to your thighs.

    The pictures below show lengthening the spine while sitting upright with knees bent.

    You can practice the same thing, lengthening the spine and reaching the arms forwards, with your pelvis tilted forwards a little bit. You can do this with knees straight (shown) or with knees bent (not shown.)

    In either case, press your legs down as you lengthen your spine.

    relaxed seated forward bend yoga position, yoga pose, seated hamstring stretch relaxedrelaxed seated forward bend yoga position, yoga pose, seated hamstring stretch spine long, arms reaching forwards

    Finally, as your hamstrings lengthen, or to deepen the stretch of your hamstrings, try to reach forwards even further. But rather than bending your spine focus on lengthening it as you inhale.

    relaxed seated forward bend yoga position, yoga pose, seated hamstring stretch spine long, arms reaching forwards

    If you find that your back rounds excessively in this pose or you have difficulty lengthening your spine the tips in seated forward bend may help.

    Resisted and Assisted Seated Hamstring Stretches

    A slightly different way to stretch the hamstrings is to grab on to the foot or big toe (or ankle) with one or both arms and while pressing the knee down, pull up with the arm to help pull the ribcage down, towards the thigh.

    seated hamstring stretch, paschimottansana, with hands holding on to big toes, using arms to pull upwards on feet while pressing backs of knees down into the floor. Neil Keleher. Sensational Yoga Poses.

    Rather than relaxing the leg, keep it active and actively resist the arm. The action of the leg pressing down and the arm pulling up may help bring your ribcage closer to your thigh.

    Keep the chest open and neck long when doing this action also.

    This option can be used in most (if not all) of the asymmetric seated hamstring stretches above.

    Modified Heron Pose

    In the previous seated hamstring stretches you tilted you pelvis forwards relative to your thigh (or attempted to.)

    In this compass pose preparation, you can move the leg relative to the pelvis to stretch the hamstrings, one leg at a time.

    modified heron pose, knee bent, hamstring stretch, knee straight, spine long, yoga pose, head pulled back and up, chin down towards chest.

    Here too you can lengthen your spine. You can also press the foot of your bent knee leg into the floor. But so that you can straighten your leg in this yoga pose, relax your shoulders.

    I've included a step-by-step in seated hamstring stretch.

    If you can straighten your leg in the above pose then you might want to give compass pose a try.

    compass yoga pose, compass yoga pose alternatives and preparations, compass pose, binding yoga poses, shoulder stretches, leg stretches

    Counter Poses for Seated Yoga Hamstring Stretches

    You may find that it feels good to do Ardha Matsyendrasana after doing modified heron pose or just before it.

    Since seated hamstring stretches tend to stretch the hamstrings and open the back of the body, you can counter pose them by opening up the front of the body with back bending yoga poses like table top yoga pose and or reverse plank pose (purvottanasana).

    You May Be Interested In

    For more on the anatomy related to the hamstrings (and the glutes) you can read hamstring anatomy.

    For more on hip anatomy in general you can read hip joint anatomy.

    For more on strengthening the hamstrings (and learning to activate them) read Hamstring Strengthening Exercises.

    Using the Hip Flexors to Stretch the Hamstrings

    So how do you go about using the hip flexors to stretch the hamstrings?

    How do you learn to activate them?

    I've included the exercises that I've found most helpful in teaching Active hip flexion in the video Muscle Control. This covers the basics which I expand upon in the ebook Active Stretching. They include exercises for activating the hip flexors as well as the muscles that oppose them, the hamstrings and glutes. It also shows you how to recognize when these muscles are active (so that you know that you are using them).

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